X-ray and optical inspection techniques are important in quality control of products produced in a continuous process.
X-rays systems are used in measurements of product size, quantity, fill factor in bottling plants and other applications.
Optical methods with transmitted or reflected light measured by photomultipliers are the basis of many sorting and inspection techniques used in manufacturing for example sorting by colour or by using fluorescence techniques.
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* can be used for pulse counting, analogue detection or photon counting